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It was salted, smoked, and even preserved in honey... Naturally there were serious problems in keeping the meat fresh, since mechanical refrigeration was unavailable. That medieval French cooks too this warning seriously and rarely roasted their beef is evident in the large stocks of beef bouillon that our recipes imply was always on hand for ready use in other preparations." ---Early French Cookery: Sources, History, Original Recipes and Modern Adaptations, D. If the ignorant cook were to subject beef to a roasting, so further drying its already dry nature, this could be quite dangerous to the unfortunate person who was to eat it later, and could even put him or her at risk of an attack of melancholia or a bilous upset. The texture of raw meat is a kindk of slick, resistant mushiness. The fluid release is at its maximum when the meat is only lightly cooked, or done 'rare.' As the temperature increases and the meat dries out, physical change gives way to chemical change, and to the development of armo as cell molecules break apart and recombine with each other to form new molecules that not only smell meaty, but also fruity and floral, nutty and grassy (esters, ketones, aldehydes)... And its moisture manifests itself if slipperiness; chewing doesn't manage to liberate much juice. As it cooks, meat develops a firmness and resiliance that make it easier to chew. With longer cooking, the juices dry up, and resiliance give way to a dry stiffness.

G.iii, Newe reare rosted egges be good in the mornynge. Tender cuts are best heated rapidly and just to the point of their juices are in full flow.

29-30) [16th-17th century France] "In 1560 Bruyerin avowed that he had 'more than once' seen '[half-cooked meats devoured so that blood almost flowed from the mouths of those who were eating.

Eleanor Scully & Terence Scully [University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor] 1995 (p.

Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness.

The ideal method for cooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion of tough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin.

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